World Health Organization. (2011). Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: report of a WHO expert consultation, Geneva, 8-11 December 2008.
Lear, S. A., James, P. T., Ko, G. T., & Kumanyika, S. (2010).Appropriateness of waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio cutoffs for different ethnic groups. European journal of clinical nutrition, 64(1), 42-61.
Individual measurements externally validated. Validated against ISAK
Waist circumference, Hip circumference
waist circumference/hip circumference.
Waist to hip ratio is the ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference (measured horizontally at the largest circumference of the buttocks). Waist to hip ratio is a measure of fat distribution and abdominal fat.
Waist to hip ratio is used to measure risks of chronic disease and mortality. A larger waist to hip ratio indicates preferential fat storage around the waist in the form of visceral adipose tissue, which can be associated with increased disease and mortality risk.
Waist and hip circumference size are influenced by our genetics and lifestyle. Conscious and positive changes to diet and exercise can reduce our waist circumference and abdominal fat.
United States, Europids, Middle East, African, South and Central Americans
South Asian, Chinese, Japanese